NIB Bank - Organizational Behavior Report


HISTORY OF THE NIB BANK:

NIB Bank Limited started as NDLC-IFIC Bank Ltd. which was incorporated in March 2003 as a public limited company. It started operations in October 2003 when all assets, liabilities, rights and obligations of the former National Development Leasing Corporation (NDLC) and Pakistan operations of IFIC were amalgamated with and into the bank with a paid up capital of Rs.1.2bn. In April 2004 the Pakistan operations of Credit Agricole Indosuez were also amalgamated with and into NIB. In March 2005 Temasek Holdings of Singapore acquired 25% shareholding in NIB Bank, through Bugis Investments.

This shareholding was further enhanced to over 70% in June '05 following an increase in NIB's paid up capital to Rs.3.4bn.

NIB Bank has since grown rapidly from a base of 2 branches in 2003 to 45 in the 4th quarter of 2007. Total assets have grown from Rs.9bn in December 2003 to Rs.87bn (excluding acquisition of PICIC through rights) as of September 30 2007, a CAGR of 85%. Loan growth has been equally rapid, increasing from Rs.7bn to Rs.43bn in the same period (a CAGR of 64%), resulting from successes in both the commercial and consumer business.

Deposits for the same period have grown at a CAGR of 95%, reaching Rs.45.3bn. The overall client base of NIB has also witnessed a tremendous growth in the same period as of September 2007; from a few thousand to over one hundred thousand.NIB Bank's vision is to rank amongst the top 5 banks in the country.

Therefore towards end of June 2007 it acquired majority shares of PICIC with the aim of merging PICIC and its commercial banking subsidiary PICIC Commercial Bank Limited into NIB . The acquisition was financed through the country's largest private sector rights issue, with resultant increase in NIB's paid up capital to Rs.21.4bn. The PICIC acquisition has bought with it another subsidiary "PICIC AMC" and an affiliate "PICIC Insurance". NIB already has a shareholding in NAFA, an Asset Management Company (AMC); thus its asset management business will now also be increased, with diversification in the insurance business.

The legal merger of PICIC, NIB & PCBL took place on December 31, 2007, once all regulatory approvals were in place. NIB Bank is led by Khawaja Iqbal Hassan, supported by four business heads and ten business enabling function heads. The merger has resulted in a vastly expanded network of 240 branches and total assets of over Rs.185bn. Consequently NIB has the second highest paid up capital of around Rs.27.5bn and ranks number 7 amongst commercial banks in terms of distribution network. Merger synergies will accrue through lower cost deposits, enhanced customer service delivery channels and overall improved efficiencies. These would provide a competitive edge in the face of increasing competition. Temasek Holdings remains the largest single investor in NIB Bank.

This merger is one step forward in consolidating the banking sector as envisioned by State Bank of Pakistan and enhancing FDI as per the Government of Pakistan's objectives. The powerful franchise of the three merged entities has now been brought together to form a large and powerful bank. Going forward management is confident that the combined bank will be a top performer delivering a wide range of financial services through an extensive branch network. The asset management arms and insurance affiliate are also expected to perform well and provide an attractive dividend stream.

GOAL SETTING THEORY:

Goal setting theory was born out of Aristotle’s theory of final causality and then researched in greater detail by Edwin A. Locke in the 1960s to understand how goals can influence an individual’s performance. The basic theory behind goal setting is that human behavior is galvanized and governed by goals and ambition. Today, goal setting theory is very important not only for those studying organizational psychology, but for anyone seeking to increase productivity, enhance performance and reach for greater heights of success. Goals are able to motivate and spur you to meet your ambitions because it helps you focus your efforts on that objective. Every objective we have requires a list of tasks to be executed. By setting goals, we’re able to persist with the list of tasks and are compelled to develop strategies in order to reach our objective. The incredible results achieved with the goal setting theory explain why it’s not just colleges, universities and sports institutions that use it to obtain results, but in businesses too where survival is based on ensuring positive outcomes.

Having objectives is not the issue, but striving to attain them is. Following are the points that help you to achieve goals:

· State your goals in specific terms. Understand what your goals are and know why you’re selecting these goals.

· Make your goals attainable. There is no point setting goals you believe are unattainable. The best way to do this is to break your goals down into actionable steps.

· Measure your goals. Set a timeframe, or a milestone that can put the pressure on you to meet your objectives.

ANALYSIS:

To what extent you and your colleagues feel that the company sets challenging goals for itself and expects quality performance and outstanding production?

Answer Log Table:

When we asked the question relating to goal setting theory from employees in general we got responses which led us to decide that employees wanted to decrease the standard of goals set for them by management. But after the thorough analysis of individuals we found about 72% employees who were satisfied with the standards of goals set for them and not only this some them wanted to improve standards of goals with little difference according to our provided scale. The rest of 28% employees feel to decrease the standard of goals.

Now the question arises why in general the answer was different instead of having majority satisfied with the standards. The reason is that those 32% employees who wanted to decrease the standard marked greater difference on the scale we provided which affected the final result but the analysis shows that the majority is satisfied with standard of the goal sets for them.

But very few of the employee’s answers led us to decide that employees wanted to decrease the standard of goals set for them by management.

But too much difficult goals can also de-motivate many employees. Company should set there goals that there employees expect to achieve.

EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT PROGRAMS:

A participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increase commitment to the organization success. Employee involvement programs include the following.

· Participative management

· Representative Participation

· Quality circles

· Employee Stock Ownership Plans.

Participative Management:

An open form of management where employees have a strong decision-making role. Participative management is developed by managers who actively seek a strong cooperative relationship with their employees. The advantages of participative management include increased productivity, improved quality, and reduced costs.

ANALYSIS:

To what extent you and your colleagues feel that you can make decisions and solve problems without checking with your managers?

We asked the question from the employees to what extant you and your colleagues feel that you can make decisions and solve problems without checking with your managers? Basically this question is related to participative management that is one of the types of employee’s involvement program to increase the involvement of employee in decision making process. After analysis of the questionnaire we found that the current participation level in NIB Bank is 48% this shows that the employees are authorized to make decisions for routine works or in normal situations but not in critical situation. However, the rating scale in our questionnaire suggests that employees wanted to be trusted and allowed to make decision to further extent by 20% more. Participative program are also very helpful to increase the moral high and productive of the employee. In participative management employees are the trusted by the management and also increase the management confidence on their employees. Participation increases commitment to decision. Employees are less likely to undermine a decision at the time of implementation if they share in making that decision and participative management makes employees job more interesting and meaningful to them and participative management increased productivity, improved quality and reduced costs.

MOTIVATION:

The process that accounts for an individual, intensity, direction and persistent efforts towards attaining a goal.

Reward systems:

The only way employees will fulfill your dream is to share in the dream. Reward systems are the mechanisms that make this happen. "However, reward systems are much more than just bonus plans and stock options. While they often include both of these incentives, they can also include awards and other recognition, promotions, reassignment, non-monetary bonuses (e.g., vacations), or a simple thank-you.

ANALYSIS:

We asked the question related to rewards that how rewards motivate employees in NIB Bank and we found that there are different kinds of rewards NIB Bank gives to their employees which are as follows:

· Cash Bonuses

· Promotions

· Make team leader

· ESOP

· Increment in salaries

· Allowances like (Fuel allowance, mobile allowance)

We found one very different kind of reward in NIB Bank that they motivate their employees whose performance is not up to the mark by giving them the salaries equivalent to the market value of the any other employee of same rank so as to motivate their employee.

We asked the question from the employees related to reward system that to what extent they are being recognized and rewarded on their good performance and how these rewards motivate them to work. We ascertained that most of the employees in NIB Bank are satisfied but very few of employees showed that there are not rewarded for their performance but the overall result is positive and this shows the level of motivation employees get from rewards. Many of the employees told us they are being rewarded after accomplishment of their sales target in such a way that their management take them to the picnic or invite them for dinner and the rewards like picnic and dinner from NIB’s management is being rewarded most frequently.

And other very interesting thing which we found in NIB Bank is that their management doesn’t fire their employees even their performance level is not up to the standard of the company. For example if an NIB’s employee continuously does not achieve its target for the period of three months the management does not fire that employee and we can say that this is kind of surety from NIB’s management to its employees and this kind of relaxation motivate employees a lot and employees secure and they are not always threaten from their management to achieve sales target.

Here we also want to share that in NIB Bank we did not find the employee recognition programs like (employee of the year, employee of the month) and we feel that this kind of recognition program can also increase the level of motivation and productivity of employees of NIB Bank.

But in whole we discover that the employees of NIB Bank are very much satisfied from rewards that are being given to them and the rewards in NIB Bank is based on the performance of the employee except one that we mentioned above and in NIB Bank most of the rewards are given to employees are of monetary nature and Management of NIB Bank continuously appreciates the good work done by the employees for the achievement of goals, which motivate the employees to worker harder for the achievement of goals.

LEADERSHIP STYLES:

From Mahatma Gandhi to Jack Welch and Martin Luther King to Rudolph Giuliani, there are as many leadership styles as there are leaders. Fortunately, business people and psychologists have developed useful, shorthand ways of describing the main leadership styles that can help aspiring leaders to understand and adapt their own styles and leadership impact.

Whether you are managing a team at work, captaining your sports team or leading a major corporation, you leadership style is crucial to your success.

10 of the most frequently talked-about leadership style are as follows:

1. Autocratic leadership

2. Bureaucratic leadership

3. Charismatic leadership

4. Democratic leadership or Participative leadership

5. Laissez-faire leadership

6. People-oriented leadership or Relations-Oriented leadership

7. Servant leadership

8. Task-oriented leadership

9. Transactional leadership

10. Transformational leadership

ANALYSIS:

Key: 1 = Never; 2 = Seldom; 3 = Occasionally; 4 = Often; 5 = Always

Tells group members what they are supposed to do.

Acts friendly with members of the group.

Sets standards of performance for group members.

Helps others feel comfortable in the group.

Makes suggestions about how to solve problems.

Responds favorably to suggestions made by others.

Makes his/her perspective clear to others.

Develops a plan of action for the group.

Behaves in a predictable manner toward group members.

We asked different questions relating to the leadership style from NIB Bank employees to know which leadership style their leader uses and we found that two of the leadership styles that are task oriented and people oriented or relations-Oriented. The results we got from employees of NIB Bank that 53% of the employees feel that their managers are relationship oriented leaders and remaining 47% feels that their managers are task oriented leaders so this shows that the NIB Bank has got the combination of leaders that are task oriented and relationship oriented. This shows that NIB Bank have the leaders that perform better in all situations and can manage their teams more effective in favorable conditions and also in very unfavorable conditions.

PATH GOAL THEORY:

House’s PATH GOAL THEORY describes how leaders can motivate their followers to achieve group and organizational goals and the kinds of behaviors they can engage in to accomplish that Path Goal theory suggests that effective leaders follow three guidelines to motivate their followers. The guidelines are based on the expectancy theory of motivation. Effective leaders who follow these guidelines have highly motivated subordinates who are likely to meet their work goals and perform at high levels.

Determine what outcomes subordinates are trying to obtain in the workplace. For example, what needs are they trying to satisfy, or what goals are they trying to meet? After gaining this information, the leader must have control over those outcomes or over the ability to give or withhold the outcomes to subordinates.

Reward subordinates for performing at high levels or achieving their work goals by giving them desired outcomes.

Make sure the subordinates believe that they can obtain their work goals and perform at high levels. Leaders can do this by showing subordinates the paths to goal attainment (hence the name path goal theory), by removing any obstacles that might come along the way, and by expressing confidence in their subordinates capabilities.

House identified four types of behavior that leaders can engage in to motivate subordinates:

· Directive behavior (similar to initiating structure) lets subordinates know what tasks need to be performed and how they should be performed.

· Supportive behavior (similar to consideration) lets subordinates know their leaders cares about their well-being and is looking out for them.

· Participative behavior enables subordinates to be involved in making decisions that affect them.

· Achievement-oriented behavior pushes subordinates to do their best. Such behavior includes setting difficult goals for followers, expecting high performance, and expressing confidence in their capabilities.

ANALYSIS:

We designed a different questionnaire especially for the TOP MANAGEMENT OF NIB Bank and the questions were related to PATH GOAL THEORY as the questionnaire belongs to the top management so we asked four top level managers of NIB Bank to fill this questionnaire list of their names and designation are given below:

By studying our questionnaire we found different behaviors of leadership and there contribution in the organization’s behavior. We found different results for each behavior after analyzing the answers of our respondents which are given below:

Directive Leaders Behavior:

The most contributive behavior in leadership behaviors in NIB Bank having 27% share in leadership behavior was found to be directive behavior which is being frequently used in the organization we targeted. The benefit of using directive form of leadership which is characterized by greater control, defining what needs to be done, allocating resources and establishing clear expectations.

The directive leadership behavior takes a more pragmatic approach to handling affairs in NIB Bank and is characteristically utilized in corporate turn-around situations.

Supportive Leaders Behavior:

The second most contributory behavior in leadership behaviors in NIB Bank having 26% share in leadership behaviors was found to be supportive behavior the results obtained shows that supportive behavior used in NIB Bank is almost the same as the use of directive leadership behavior with having difference of only 1% which is not a very big figure.

Participative Leaders Behavior:

Participative leadership behavior is the least used behavior in NIB’s culture with having 23% this shows that the NIB Bank leaders do consult with their subordinates while making a decision but at low frequency as compared to other PATH GOAL leadership behaviors.

Achievement Oriented Leaders Behavior:

The third most contributory behavior in leadership behaviors in NIB Bank with having percentage of 24 this shows that the leaders of NIB Bank set challenging goals for their subordinates with low frequency but they expect from their employees to perform at their highest level.

The results of our analysis shows that there is no such big difference in leadership behaviors used in NIB Bank and this is a very good sign for NIB Bank that their leaders manage their subordinates according to different situations with different leadership behaviors.

NORMS:

“Norms are shared group expectations about behavior and how members ought to behave.”

Norms provide groups with control and predictability and give members a sense of security and comfort. Norms are also the way we express values, attitudes and beliefs. Norms put boundaries on members that may be narrow or wide.

Many norms in organizations originate from management expectation or from work rules and procedures of the formal organization. They develop and operate in informal groups. Many central work group norms revolve around productivity. Norms can put lower and upper limits on productivity. Controlling productivity not only spread the work ought to more people for a longer period, but also prevents management from rising its expectation.

Some organizations have norms emphasizing social concern for employees this norm foster taking care of people who needed or other wise contributing to the quality of an employee’s life at work. Management can foster many norms that contribute to organizational success, such as norms effecting work quality, helpfulness or customer relation. A norm of secrecy may be critical to keep competitors from stealing ideas.

ANALYSIS:

Norms are of four types. The one we quire about is social norm. The reason of selecting social norm is that our culture is based on collectivism so the importance of social norms is very high. The situation of norms in NIB’s culture is fair enough according to the result of our questionnaire most of the employees follows the norms set by the organization and they are satisfied with them, but we found some employees who are willing to improve the conditions i.e. norms the calculated value of there willingness is about 25%. The major factors of social norms are friendliness, trust and mutual support. According to the employees in NIB Bank the conditions of trust and friendliness are pretty good and they are willing to increase mutual support.

It is necessary to emphasize on social arrangement norms in country like Pakistan because of its collectivism culture and these norms helps the organization to get the participation of their employee in positive manner to achieve the goals set by the organization these kind of norms also motivates the employees to remain in organization because of friendly culture in organization social arrangement norms also helps the employees to interacts with each other in more friendly manner which will increase trust among them and with there top management.

If these norms are valued by the management then it will positively affect employee satisfaction and productivity and it will also enhance the organization culture

CONFORMITY:

“Conformity can be defined as a change in a person’s behavior or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure from a person or a group of people”.

Who does Conformity affect?

Conformity can affect people in all different ways, positively and negatively.

In task-specific situations, those who are led to believe they do not have the required aptitude, their tendency to conform increases.

Individualistic societies are less likely to conform than collectivistic.

How does Conformity work?

An individual will most likely conform if:

Ø The majority consists of experts

Ø The members of the majority are important to the individual

Ø The individual can relate to the majority on some level--there are similarities between the individual and the group

ANALYSIS:

Through our questionnaire we analyzed the pattern of answers given by employees and we found many similar answers in regard of questions and it shows greater extend of conformity among employees of NIB Bank as they have almost marked similar options given in each questions of our questionnaire. The level of conformity shows there good relations and understanding with each other which also shows that they will not leave each other in hard times but on the other hand the high level of conformity indicates the danger of employees saying always yes to other’s decision instead of thinking critically about it and there might be a chance of employee saying yes under pressure in the fear of loosing group and may result in loss of any useful idea.

After Asch’s study about conformity, in the world the conformity is decreasing as the level of knowledge and awareness are increasing and the result of our questionnaire shows high level of conformity, we can suggest the reason “collectivism culture of Pakistan”

TEAMS:

A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individuals input.

Guideline for team leaders set by NIB’s management:

Definition:

Has a natural authority, generates commitment and builds team cohesiveness by setting a clear vision for the team, reflected in core values.

LESS EFFECTIVE BEHAVIOUR INDICATOR

Communicates frequently a realistic picture of future plans so people know what has to be done and why?

Arrives at decision by consensus, where appropriate, to gain team commitment.

Is supportive of the team / individuals and helps in overcoming problems to achieve targets.

Leads by example; displays behavior which reflects the desired work norms and values.

Spends time finding out the way individuals want to be managed and work together; adapts leadership by style to match.

Maximizes the available resource by constructing well-balanced teams; acknowledges and helps others values the unique contributions of each member.

Identifies own leadership style and strengths, adapts these to specific situations.

Follows up with dissenters or blocker to contain negativity.

Takes independent decisions and asks the team to follow instruction without questioning.

Waits for team to ask for information instead of proactively keeping them informed of the ‘big’ picture.

Exhibits high personal energy when initiating action but does not follow through.

Talks about the theory and principles of leadership, yet not reflected in behavior.

Uses the abilities of staff for own personal and career gains; does not share benefits and praise but passes on criticisms and blame.

Does not seek to identify and discuss the values of the team to ensure everyone is working towards a common goal.

Avoid admitting own mistakes or limitations.

Guidelines for reducing conflicts between team members set by NIB’s management:

Definition:

The ability to pull together individuals or parties in conflict by diffusing emotions, identifying the critical issues and helping got reach a compromise; keeps the focus on common objective to meet both needs.

LESS EFFECTIVE BEHAVIOUR INDICATOR

Confronts covert conflict; draws out sensitive issues or relationships.

Uses all-round knowledge to manage interdepartmental and intra-departmental conflicts.

Keeps the focus of conflict resolution on the long term overall interests of the organization.

Facilitates open discussion between conflicting parties.

Remains impartial when dealing with others; listen to arguments of each party.

Adapts approach to the situation and the culture of the conflicting parties.

Lets conflict escalate before taking any action.

Seeks to diffuse conflict after listening to only some of the parties involved; jumps to conclusions about others based on earlier situations.

Adopts a singular style or strategy across different contexts.

Does not identify brewing conflicts from emotional reactions.

Suggests own solution to conflict without identifying the source.

Focuses too much on emotional aspects of the conflict rather than the solutions.

Conveys inconsistent messages to conflicting parties, thus resulting in the further confusions.

ANALYSIS:

After visited to NIB Bank we discovered that the NIB Bank employees comprised of self-managed works teams according to employees responses they feel greater level of responsibility on their shoulders and they manage the things like planning, scheduling of work, and assigning task to the member of team, control the pace of the work, make decisions through discussion between the team members, take actions to solve the problem and also interact with their customers and we found that the employees called their colleagues relationship officer rather than sales officer.

QUALITY MANAGEMENT:

CREATIVITY

Definition:

Is able to conceive original, imaginative and valuable ideas to solve problems and improve processes.

LESS EFFECTIVE BEHAVIOUR INDICATOR

Develops ideas and thinks through to an innovative conclusions.

Questions traditional thinking in order to initiate new perspectives.

Builds on information and ideas provided by others.

Acts quickly to grasp and develop novel opportunities.

Improvises effective solutions when faced with ambiguous and difficult situations.

Tests out ideas for practicality and feasibility.

Seeks out pools and thinkers and puts them together to generate ideas; uses tools and techniques to simulate others’ creativity.

Prefers to use tried and tested methods to solve problems rather than think of new and innovative solutions.

Sees opportunities as risks; talks about the dangers and risks rather than the potential benefits.

Actions ideas giving appropriate thought only to short-term benefits and immediate impact.

Is overly absorbed in own ideas; hence is not as aware of the environment or important events as required.

Over relies heavily on past experience; does not think laterally.

CONTINUES LEARNING:

Definition:

A strong personal commitment to self-development reflected in an underlying curiosity to know more about people, things, issues, stretching beyond what is routine or required job knowledge.

LESS EFFECTIVE BEHAVIOUR INDICATOR

Identifies skills needed for the future and takes steps to develop self and others.

Actively seeks professional development opportunities, both inside and outside the organization.

Seeks opportunities to work with the others of diverse backgrounds, experience, viewpoints.

Has personally established on-going systems or habits for information gathering through professional memberships, literature and contacts.

Sets clear personal development targets which focus on behavioral improvements as much as professional / technical skills.

Volunteers for assignments which contribute to individual learning goals.

Accepts and seeks feedback from others; learns from past mistakes.

Over emphasizes the importance of won professional development at the cost of work priorities.

Relies too heavily on own knowledge does not accept constructive feedback.

Sticks to own area of expertise rather than broadening one’s focus.

Develops oneself for tangible rewards rather than more and grow.

Waits for others to identify own development needs.

Considers skills lifelong; continuously resorts to tried and tested methods.

Prefers to cover up mistakes rather than seek feedback and learn.

CONCLUSION:

After studying and a analyzing the results of our research on the various issues related to the organizational behavior within the organization that are affecting the performance of its management and particularly its employee, followed by several general and specific list of questions we asked and the interviews we conducted during our visit to the two branches of NIB bank one on “Tariq Road” and other on “I.I Chundrigar Road”, we are able to draw out our conclusions about this report.

NIB Bank is a global bank which is also operating in Pakistan. The organization behavior regarding goal setting for employees we have concluded that the management of NIB Bank is effective in setting goals according to the competition in the banking sector of Pakistan. As the requirement of growing banking sector it is necessary to set challenging and effective goals so as to become market leaders. Despite of setting challenging goals the employees of NIB Bank are satisfied with these challenging goals and performing well to achieve the goals which were provided to them.

The management style in NIB Bank is kind of participative management in which employees are given chance to share their ideas for decision making so the NIB Bank is utilizing its employees by getting different ideas from different employees this provides greater chances for getting better and innovative ideas. Not only this but from this activity employees feel motivated because they think they also have the authority in decision making process and they are also a part of an organization. During the interview of an employee NIB Bank he told us “All the employees here are given title of relationship officer rather than any other designation and at the beginning of each month the top level management visits every branch and arrange meeting with all the employees of the branch and discuss the problems faced by every employee and immediately tries to resolve the problem and this is the major motivating factor for us”. For motivating their employees management uses different types of motivating tools the innovative ones we found are ESOP (Employees Stock Ownership Plan) and the pay plan for less productive workers. By providing ESOP the employees gains the ownership of an organization and work hard not only for their benefit but also to maximize the profit of the organization. The next thing about the pay plan for less productive workers the company motivate their employees whose performance is not up to the mark by giving them the salaries equivalent to the market value of the any other employee of same rank.

As the motivation and reward systems are up to the expectation of the employees so the employees are very much satisfied and don’t want to leave the organization.

The leadership styles in NIB Bank are mixture of both the task oriented and relationship oriented but it is little lien towards relationship oriented leadership style. The leader’s behavior consisting of all the leaders’ behavior provided by House’s Path Goal Theory having almost same percentages with very low variation.

Overall we concluded NIB Bank inherits strong organizational culture having values for leaders and as well as for employees and the organization behavior is up to the mark for any company being in Pakistan.

RECOMMENDATION:

1. NIB Bank should offer training and development sessions for undergraduates; this will help NIB Bank in future while recruiting employees.

2. NIB Bank should reduce conformity by giving rewards to employees for suggesting more effective idea in the benefit of the organization this will not only provide wider range of ideas but also act as a motivational tool for their employees.

3. NIB Bank should arrange extra curricular activities like cricket matches on inter bank level to further improve relations between employees as other organizations are organizing (for example ABN Amro, Mobilink, etc.)

4. NIB should introduce “Dress-Down” day i.e. employees should be given permission to wear dresses other than formal dresses on certain days so as to make them relaxed while work.


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