Stages of writing

Stages of writing

Writing is a skill which the learner should ideally ride a bicycle. Usually, a child starts with a tricycle. It is so safe that he cannot fall. Then he uses a bicycle with some supports on either side. He is free to ride but is protected by the supports. Finally, he has the confidence to cycle away on only tow wheels without any external help. Similarly, a good writing programme is started in stages. A proficient teacher leads his students through three stages: controlled writing, guided writing, and free writing.

Controlled writing:

In the beginning, all writing is controlled in a controlled writing it is the teacher who is mostly active. As the content and the language are provided by the teacher, the students make very few mistakes. Here the students are able to use appropriate words and learn correct grammatical patterns. They learn correct sentence formation by making a good choice of vocabulary and structures. They learn suitable use of vocabulary and structures. They learn suitable use of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, articles, prepositions, conjunctions and interrogatives. Examples of such exercise are substitution table and copying exercise.

Guided Writing:

In the guided writing, both the teacher and the students are equally involved, the students learn organize their ideas and write systematically. Butt theory needs some guidance from the teacher. For writing letters, applications, invitations, stories and essays, a set pattern is required. The teacher provides this pattern. He presents a model on the balck board, or a big wall-chart. This outline is first discussed orally by the class and then the students write it won their note books. Guided writing is basically concerned with the organization of the material. It may take the following forms of exercises:


The teacher will give the students some incomplete sentences. They will think and individually complete them.


The teacher will gibe the students a text. The students will read it and rewrite it


The teacher will give the students some sentences and asked them to write them in a changed form.


The teacher will give the students a text. The students will read it and rewrite it in a brief form, in from of a summary.


The teacher will give some topic to the students along with some hits. The students will think for a while and write on that topic in detail.

Free Writing:

This is the last stage of writing. This type of writing develops the students’ power of originality who is mostly active. The usual free writing activities practiced  in the class are compositions and essays. at this phase of writing the teacher will provide only the topic. The student s may discuss it on their own in the form of a small-group discussion. The teacher will not interfere. The student will use their own language. they will give expression to their individual thoughts freely. So both the language and the content will be students’. Free writing is basically creative writing. The students use their own language and content.