READING SKILLS


READING SKILLS

1.     Reading Comprehension

Redding is one of the four language skills. It is generally agreed that the two main aims of reading are information and pleasure. It is for great value and importance. The most acceptable definition of reading is “the process by which we make sense o text”. It word and understanding the message

(I)        Identifying the Main idea:

Every text has a main idea, function or topic. The teacher will ask the students to skim through the text and identify that general idea. Before the students read the text the teacher will give them a list of few general questions. Answer to these questions will help the students to find out the main idea.

(II)      Finding the supporting details:

In every text there is usually one main idea, and some supporting details. The paragraphs in a text provide these details, now the teacher will ask the students to scan ever paragraph and pick up the topic sentence of that paragraph.

(III)          Understanding the full meanings:

The teacher will ask the students to read the text intensively (in depth) for complete comprehension and analysis. They should try to guess the meanings to difficult words from their context. They should try to read and understand every sentence.

(IV)           Sequencing Exercises:

Sequencing means ‘giving right order’. The teacher will write on the back board some sentences from the text. The students will read the text and write those sentences in the right order they occur in the text.

(V)       Recognizing cohesion devices:

      Cohesion means the linking of sentences especially in a written text. The writer uses certain words to organize hi text into a coherent whole. Such linking words and expression are therefore, although in spite of, but, finally, on the other hand, etc. The teacher will ask the student to read the text and pick up such expressions.





     (IV)     Cloze exercises (Gap-filling):

      The teacher will ask the students to read the text in their book. Then he will give the same text printed on a sheet of paper to the students. In that text every 7th or 9th word will be missing.
Information transfer exercises:
These are read-and-do exercises. In these exercises. The text is ready very carefully. Then this text is presented in another form sometimes, the information is presented in the form of a diagram, sometimes in the form of a chart.

2.     Types of reading

When we read something we usually read for a particular purpose. For instance we read the front page of a newspaper to find out what the latest news is. We read a train time-table to find out when trains leave and arrive. We read a telephone directory to find out someone’s telephone number. We read a novel for enjoyment. We read a text book to teach the subject we are studying, and so on.

(I)       Skimming:

Literally skimming means taking off cream from milk. In language study, it means reading something very quickly to find out what is it about. By running over eyes quickly over without worrying about the detail. When a person skims some text, he reads selectively. We skim generally for two reasons to avoid reading and a student must learn it.
  1. What methods of reading have been discussed in this article?
  2. Which of these tittles fits the text best?
  3. Which of these topics are dealt within the text?

(II)    Scanning:

Literally scanning means locating or discovering the place of something. In language study it means reading a text quickly to look for a specific piece of information. It is faster than skimming. In skimming we find out the gist but here we look for only one bit of information. When scanning, we run our eyes rapidly down the page, searching for the particular information. In this type of reading, we should keep name and numbers for dates.
  1. Look at page 00 and find out when Shakespeare died?
  2. How many times does the word this occurs on this page?
  3. (Using a page from an index) on what page is the topic of evolution mentioned?

(III) Intensive reading:

It is also called’ study reading’ it means the close and deep reading usually of a shot text. It is slow reading as it takes as time and effort. A great deal of class room reading, poetry or prose, is of this type. We also read intensively the written instruction, recipes, application forms, and question paper sin the examination halls.

(IV)  Extensive reading:

It means reading longer texts, usually for one’s own pleasure.  Unlike intensive reading, extensive reading is done mostly outside the class room in spare time, it is reading at home without the control and help of the teacher.


3   Faulty reading habits

We usually take reading for granted, and do not realize the causes of slow speed in reading.  The teacher should be aware of certain reading habits that may impede (interfere with) the reading process.  Some of such faulty reading habits are as follows:

(I)    Finger movement:

Some students move their fingers along the line as they read.  This slows down reading speed as the reader’s eye is inhibited by the movement of the finger as it stops and touches individual words.

(II) Head movement:

Some students make unnecessary head movement as they read.  This also inhabits (hold in check) reading speed since the eyes are denied natured fixation.

(III)          Eye and head movement:

Some students make unnecessary eye and head movements as they read. Their eyes move from word to word and so does their head. This also inhibits (hold back) reading speed since the eyes are denied natural fixation.

(IV)           Regression:

It means backward eye movements. The reader is reading and his eyes are sweeping forward and continuously advancing. Suddenly he moves back his eyes to check previous words. When this is repeated again and again, the speed of reading slows down.

(V)       Vocalization:

Vocalization means reading aloud which is useful at primary stages where the aim of reading is fluency and correct pronunciation. But at the stage of silent reading, it is considered to be a faulty habit.  Reading aloud is much slower than silent reading as our eyes move faster than out tongue.

(VI)           Sub-vocalization:

Some readers don’t utter the woes in an audible way, but they murmur or moth them, that is, they move their lips as they read.  The result is again own effect of vocalization or sib-vocalization can be understood by the following simple model of the reading process.

Print

Eye

Brain

Print

Eye

Vocalization

Brain

Our eye receives a visual image from print, and they transmit it to the brain where the message is interpreted.  When we vocalize or read aloud.  We add another stage to this process which results in slow speed of reading.